- "extract (a modulating signal) from its carrier."

Episode 1: "The x.25 hacker" - Invented in the 1970s and popular in the 1980s, x.25 networks allowed some of the first computer systems to be globally connected. At the time, x.25 networks were used by ATM machines, aviation companies, e-mail systems, environmental control systems, news outlets, chemical companies, banking and financial computers and much more. Globally connectivity and a wide range of targets attracted hackers from around the world. In this episode, we will be exploring and talking with x.25 hackers to learn how x.25 networks functioned and how x.25 hackers exploited them.

This episode includes interviews by Da Beave, JFalcon and Hans Heinrich Hubner (aka - "Pengo" from the "Cuckoo's Egg").

Episode 1: "The x.25 hacker" (Download)

Reddit discussion about the "x25 hacker"

Note: The audio from the Skype interviews cuts out. This is not due to editing but due to Skype issues.

Hans "Pengo" Hubner full interview (Download)

JFalcon full interview (Download)

Example NUA scan lists by Da Beave in 1991. Complete with notes about the systems discovered at that time.

Video of x.25 PADS around the world. This video is from "Hacking International Networks using VoIP" presented by Da Beave and JFalcon at HOPE (Hackers on Planet Earth) in New York City in 2007. This is the link mentioned in Demodulate episode 1. This video shows x.25 PADs in the following countries:

(Japan: FENICS, DNIC 4415; Germany: DATEX-P, DNIC 2624; South Africa, SAPONET-P, DNIC 6550; Australia: AUSTPAC, DNIC 5052; Sweden: DATAPAC, DNIC: 2422; France: TRANSPAC, DNIC 2080; Air Transportation Comms: SITA, DNIC 4424; India: INET, DNIC 4043; England: GNS Dialplus, DNIC 2342; Kuwait: ????, DNIC ????; United State: DIGIPAC, DNIC 3147;)

"X.25 networks in the Arab world" by Raoul Chiesa. Raoul is a well known x.25 hacker and security researcher. These are slides from HITB SecConf in Dubai (April of 2007).

Want some old school reading material about x.25? Go to http://textfiles.com/hacking/" and search for "Telenet", "Datapac", "Tymnet", etc. There are many issues of Phrack that have information about x.25 networks.

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